The 19th Century : Romanticism in Art and Literature

 

romanticism in literature was characterized by

The Romantic movement in English literature of the early 19th century has its roots in 18th-century poetry, the Gothic novel and the novel of sensibility. This includes the graveyard poets, who were a number of pre-Romantic English poets writing in the 's and later, whose works are characterized by their gloomy meditations on mortality, "skulls and coffins, epitaphs and worms" in the context of the . Romanticism, attitude or intellectual orientation that characterized many works of literature, painting, music, architecture, criticism, and historiography in Western civilization over a period from the late 18th to the midth century. Feeling and instincts, over reason. British Romantic William Wordsworth described poetry as "the spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings." Cannot control it.


Romanticism (literature) - definition of Romanticism (literature) by The Free Dictionary


Romanticism also the Romantic era or the Romantic period is an artistic, literary, and intellectual movement that originated in Europe toward the end of the 18th century and was at its peak in the approximate period from to Romanticism is characterized by its emphasis on emotion and individualism as well as glorification of all the past and nature, preferring the medieval rather than the classical.

It is a reaction to the ideas of the Industrial Revolution, the aristocratic social and political norms of the Age of Enlightenmentand the scientific rationalization of nature. The meaning of romanticism has changed with time. In the 17th century, "romantic" meant imaginative or fictitious due to the birth of a new literary genre : the novel. Novels, that is to say texts of fiction, were written in vernacular romance languagesas opposed to religious texts written in Latin, romanticism in literature was characterized by.

In the 18th century, romanticism is eclipsed by the Age of Enlightenment, where everything is perceived through the prism of science and reason. In the 19th century, "romantic" means sentimental : lyricism and the expression of personal emotions are emphasized. Feelings and sentiments are very much present in romantic works. The romantic international started in Germany at the end of the 18th century with "Storm and Stress".

Romanticism in literature was characterized by two most famous poets are Goethe and Schiller and many philosophers such as Fichte, Schlegel, Schelling and Herder. Romanticism was a renewal, a revolution is artistic forms in paintings, literature and theatre. In Germany and Russia, romanticism in literature was characterized by, romanticism created the national literature. It influenced the whole vision of art. It was also the origin of contemporary ideas : modern individualism, the vision of nature, the vision of the work of art as an isolated object.

Romanticism represents a break with the universalistic outlook of the Enlightenment, romanticism in literature was characterized by. Reason is something universal and the Enlightenment found its models in classical France and Rome : all men are the same because there are all reasonable. Romanticism if a fragmentation of consciousness, with no universalistic ideas left. The French Revolution was characterized by universalistic ideas such as all men are created equal.

It corresponds to the philosophy of the Enlightenment. The nation is born out of a social contract : it means that you are free to choose to belong to one nation or another. It is different in Germany where you don't choose your country, that is where you were born organic nation. There's a difference between the first and second generation of poets. British poets were rather progressive and close to dissenters.

The French Revolution was full of hope of equality but it quickly changed when init gave way to the Terror and the beheading of the King. Only William Blake remained a radical, unlike Wordsworth and Coleridge. There was an incredible pressure in England at the time. It turned away the first generation from their ideals.

Blake wrote a visionary, imaginary poetry, really difficult to understand. Wordsworth and Coleridge were reactionary to the French Revolution. Wordsworth turned away from the excesses of the revolution and wrote a simple poetry in a democratic style. Coleridge was inspired by the Middle Ages and German thought, and was a reactionary Christian nationalist, romanticism in literature was characterized by.

The second generation remains more radical but the political climate was so oppressive that the radicals left England or made more indirect political comments. In Prometheus Unbounda man fights against political and religious oppression.

Romanticism was connected with politics of the time. Romantic poets could be either conservative or progressive, depending on their vision of the world. There is an intellectual shift from society to nature. During the Enlightenment, thinkers had a metropolitan consciousness: the intellectual life took place in cities - London and Edinburgh were highly-regarded cultural centres. Nature was thought as humanized, transformed by man with agriculture.

The Enclosure Movement was a push in the 18th and 19th centuries to take land that had formerly been owned in common by all members of a village, or at least available to the public for grazing animals and growing food, and change it to privately owned land, usually with walls, fences or hedges around it. The most well-known Enclosure Movements were in the British Isles, but the practice had its roots in the Netherlands and occurred to some degree throughout Northern Europe and elsewhere as industrialization spread.

Some small number of enclosures had been going on since the 12th century, especially in the north and west of England, but it became much more common in romanticism in literature was characterized by 's, and in the next century Parliament passed the General Enclosure Act of and the Enclosure Act ofmaking enclosures of certain lands possible throughout England, Wales, Scotland, and Ireland.

The English government and aristocracy started enclosing land claiming it would allow for better raising of crops and animals particularly sheep for their wool. They claimed that large fields could be farmed more efficiently than individual plots allotted from common land -- and the profit could be kept by the aristocrats who now owned the legally confiscated land.

Some claim this was the beginning of commercial farming. Poor people had no way of subsistence apart from working for the land owners. It brought about more poverty and poor people drifted from the countryside to the cities, where the Industrial Revolution had begun, based on the steam engine and the creation of factories where poor people were employed in bad working conditions, pollution, criminality and corruption.

The paradox was that more and more people moved into the cities when they all had terrible living conditions. Nature became idealized as life in the country was romanticism in literature was characterized by virtuous.

Romantic poets did not talk about cities but realists did. There was a regeneration of human life destroyed by cities, an idealized vision of nature : they were looking for a renewed humanity. Wordsworth and Coleridge left the city for the Lake District. In America, transcendentalists such as Emerson or Thoreau did the same. Thoreau went out in the wilderness to Walden Pond to write Walden in They discovered the American identity : the civilization was European.

There is a kind of individualism that refuses every kind of moral convention who you really romanticism in literature was characterized by and pantheism belief that Nature is divine and has a soul. Nature was not only peaceful and meditative but also stormy, tempestuous and too big for man sublime. In Shelley's Ode to the West Windthe poet starts by identifying himself with the wind : he wants to have the same power and the same liberty. As such, it can be considered a political poem.

The "west wind" is the wind from America, from the Revolution. The romantic world is a dynamic world of change, romanticism in literature was characterized by.

When there is beauty, it's always ephemeral. What creates the changes are the elemental forces storm, power etc. Energy can come from human beings too. Romanticism is the emphasis romanticism in literature was characterized by feelings, passions and intuitions. It differs from the 18th century, which was based on reason and reflection.

Reason is universal, everyone uses the same logic : it is not personal. On the other hand, feelings, passion and intuition are what make people different from each other; it is very individualistic and selfish. Passion is one of the dynamic elements of romanticism, it's a factor of change for the individual and a factor of historical change as Hegel once said "nothing great was accomplished in history without passion".

Passion is also extremely changing : nothing is closer to romanticism in literature was characterized by than hate. It alternates between exaltation and melancholy, between nostalgia and optimism.

The lover is killed by Isabella's brothers. She digs his grave, cuts his head and hides it in a pot of basil with a flower in it. As she cries everyday, it turns to a beautiful flower. Contrasts, dichotomies can be seen on romanticism in literature was characterized by levels between reason and emotion, beautiful and sublime, reality and imagination. Dialectics are the dynamic principle behind everything and could be seen as a rational monism the antonym of "pluralism" with the religious revival and the visionary style.

Wuthering Heights takes place in Yorkshire moors. Catherine Earnshaw hesitates between Heathcliff and Edgar Linton. She chooses Edgar but Heathcliff comes back rich. There is a conflict between what men represent and what places represent. It's the conflict of "the children of calm, the children of the storm". The dualism is a cosmic matter between calm and quietness, storm and passion. It's the idea of homo duplex : man is double in a "double simultaneous postulation", romanticism in literature was characterized by.

There is a rediscovery of history and exoticism through local colour : few details to show you are not at home for instance, if you write about Asia, add some geishas in kimonos. With romanticism, there is an outburst of cultural nationalism : German romanticism was a flowering of vernacular literatures. The vernacular is the language spoken by the people; it's different from the language spoken by the cultural elite French, Latin, romanticism in literature was characterized by.

It was good enough to romanticism in literature was characterized by good literature. There was also a going back to folklore, legends, and fairy tales. Wordsworth and Coleridge both wrote lyrical ballads in In The Rhyme of the Ancient MarinerColeridge worked on the supernatural and tells the story of a mariner who killed an albatross, which is a very bad omen for mariners : they are all doomed.

In Romanticism in literature was characterized by Idiot BoyWordsworth dealt with the ordinary life and tells the story of a woman who needs medicine for her child. She sends the idiot boy. His aim was to represent the essential passions of human nature, to use simple language, "the select of a language, really used by men". He abandoned the artificiality of poetic diction and the political dimension criticized by many people. Wordsworth also wrote "conversation poems" such as Frost as midnight : blank verse monologues addressing the listener as in a conversation.

The listener is in fact the reader. Regional poetry is another way to use the vernacular : vernacular in Scotland is different from the vernacular in South England. See Walter Scott and Robert Burns. Walter Scott invented the historical novel with Waverley and Ivanhoe

 

Romanticism - Wikipedia

 

romanticism in literature was characterized by

 

Romanticism is characterized by its emphasis on emotion and individualism as well as glorification of all the past and nature, preferring the medieval rather than the classical. It is a reaction to the ideas of the Industrial Revolution, the aristocratic social and political norms of the Age of Enlightenment, and the scientific rationalization of nature. Romanticism, attitude or intellectual orientation that characterized many works of literature, painting, music, architecture, criticism, and historiography in Western civilization over a period from the late 18th to the midth century. Feeling and instincts, over reason. British Romantic William Wordsworth described poetry as "the spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings." Cannot control it.